Mastering basics: loudness, EQ, and stereo imaging In Cubase 12

Mastering is the final step in the music production process, where the individual tracks of a song or an entire album are polished and prepared for distribution. It involves the application of various audio processing techniques to achieve a cohesive and professional sound across all playback systems. While my knowledge is based on information available up to September 2021, I can provide an introduction to mastering basics in Cubase 12, considering it might have built on the mastering features from previous versions.

  1. Mastering Workflow: In Cubase 12, the mastering process typically starts by importing the final mix of your song or album into a new project. It’s essential to work with a high-quality, uncompressed audio file for mastering to achieve the best results. The mastering process is divided into several stages, including loudness optimization, tonal balance adjustments, stereo imaging enhancement, and final signal processing.
  2. Loudness Optimization: Cubase 12 should provide loudness metering tools compliant with industry-standard specifications like LUFS (Loudness Units Full Scale). These tools help you analyze the perceived loudness of your music and ensure it meets the desired loudness level appropriate for the chosen distribution platform (e.g., streaming services, CDs). By applying appropriate gain adjustments and dynamic processing, you can achieve a balanced and competitive loudness level while retaining the dynamic range of your music.
  3. Tonal Balance and EQ: In the mastering process, it’s crucial to ensure that the frequency balance across the entire frequency spectrum is optimized. Cubase 12 should include a variety of EQ plugins to achieve this. Parametric EQs, graphic EQs, and dynamic EQs can be used to make precise adjustments to different frequency ranges, address resonances, and enhance the overall tonal balance of the mix.
  4. Stereo Imaging: Cubase 12 should offer advanced stereo imaging tools to control the width and spatial placement of your music within the stereo field. With stereo wideners, panning controls, and other imaging plugins, you can create a sense of depth and width, making your music sound more immersive and engaging.
  5. Signal Processing: The final stage of mastering involves applying various signal processing effects to further enhance the audio quality. This may include multi-band compression, harmonic excitation, saturation, and limiting, among others. These processes help to add warmth, sparkle, and cohesion to the final master, ensuring it sounds polished and professional.
  6. Monitoring and A/B Comparison: Accurate monitoring is critical during the mastering process. Cubase 12 should support high-quality audio interfaces and provide tools for precise monitoring of the mastered material. Additionally, the software might offer A/B comparison features, allowing you to switch between the original mix and the mastered version to make informed decisions and ensure your mastering enhancements are effective.

Remember, mastering is an art form that requires a trained ear and a lot of practice. Take the time to experiment with different techniques and plugins in Cubase 12 to find the best settings that complement your music and bring out its full potential.

Understanding Loudness

Understanding loudness in Cubase 12 is essential for achieving a balanced and professional sound in your music productions. Cubase 12 likely offers various loudness metering and control tools to help you optimize the perceived volume levels of your audio tracks, ensuring they meet industry standards and sound great on different playback systems. Here’s a breakdown of key concepts related to loudness in Cubase 12:

  1. Loudness Units Full Scale (LUFS): LUFS is the standard measurement unit used to quantify loudness in audio. Unlike traditional peak meters that measure the highest amplitude of a signal, LUFS meters provide an integrated measurement of the perceived loudness over time. In Cubase 12, loudness metering tools should display the average loudness of your tracks in LUFS, helping you assess the overall perceived volume level.
  2. Loudness Range (LRA): Loudness Range, often referred to as LRA, measures the dynamic range of your audio material. It calculates the difference between the loudest and quietest parts of a track and is also expressed in LUFS. A higher LRA value indicates a wider dynamic range, while a lower LRA value suggests a more consistent loudness throughout the track.
  3. Target Loudness Levels: Different platforms and delivery formats have specific loudness level requirements. For example, streaming services like Spotify and Apple Music have recommended target loudness levels to ensure a consistent listening experience across their platforms. Cubase 12 might offer presets or recommendations for these target loudness levels to help you optimize your mix for specific distribution channels.
  4. Loudness Metering in Cubase 12: Cubase 12 likely provides various loudness metering options, including dedicated loudness meters, loudness range meters, and loudness history graphs. These tools allow you to monitor and analyze the loudness characteristics of your mix in real-time. They may be available as standalone plugins or integrated into the master channel or metering section of Cubase’s interface.
  5. Loudness Normalization: To achieve a consistent loudness level across different tracks or albums, loudness normalization is often applied during the mastering process. Cubase 12 might offer loudness normalization features that allow you to adjust the overall loudness of your mix automatically, bringing it in line with the desired target level.
  6. Loudness Control and Processing: Cubase 12 may include various loudness processing tools such as compressors, limiters, and dynamic processors to help you control the loudness of individual tracks or the overall mix. By using these processors carefully, you can maintain the dynamic range while ensuring that the track’s loudness falls within the desired range.

Understanding loudness in Cubase 12 will empower you to create professional-sounding mixes that are optimized for different playback platforms and deliver an enjoyable listening experience to your audience. Take advantage of the loudness metering and control tools provided in Cubase 12 to achieve the desired loudness levels while preserving the dynamic range and musicality of your music.

Equalization (EQ) Techniques

Equalization (EQ) is a fundamental audio processing technique used to shape the tonal characteristics of audio signals in music production. In Cubase 12, you can expect a wide range of EQ tools and techniques to help you enhance individual tracks and achieve a balanced mix. Here are some common EQ techniques you can employ in Cubase 12:

  1. Channel EQ: Cubase 12 should include a basic Channel EQ that is readily available on each audio track. This parametric EQ allows you to adjust the frequency response by boosting or cutting specific frequency bands. You can control the frequency, gain (level), and bandwidth (Q) for each band. Use Channel EQ to remove unwanted frequencies, emphasize certain instruments or vocals, and carve out space for different elements in the mix.
  2. Graphic EQ: Cubase 12 might also provide a Graphic EQ option. Unlike the parametric EQ, the Graphic EQ features fixed frequency bands with adjustable gain levels. Graphic EQs are useful for making broader tonal adjustments and can be particularly handy for shaping the overall frequency balance of a mix.
  3. Dynamic EQ: Dynamic EQ is a powerful feature that combines traditional EQ with dynamic processing. It allows you to apply equalization only when specific frequency ranges exceed a certain threshold level. This can be handy for taming resonances, reducing harsh frequencies, or addressing frequency imbalances in a more transparent manner.
  4. Mid-Side EQ: Cubase 12 may support Mid-Side (M/S) processing, which lets you independently equalize the mono (mid) and stereo (side) components of a stereo signal. This technique is excellent for adjusting the width and focus of elements within the stereo field, providing more precise control over the spatial characteristics of your mix.
  5. Match EQ: Match EQ is a specialized EQ technique that enables you to match the frequency response of one audio track to that of another reference track. Cubase 12 might offer a Match EQ feature that helps you achieve a similar tonal balance or sonic characteristics from a reference track onto your mix.
  6. Linear Phase EQ: Linear Phase EQ is useful when you need to apply EQ without introducing phase shift or smearing the audio signal. This can be essential for mastering tasks or when working with complex arrangements. Cubase 12 might include Linear Phase EQ options to ensure high-quality equalization without phase issues.
  7. High-Pass and Low-Pass Filters: High-pass filters (HPF) and low-pass filters (LPF) are essential tools for cleaning up audio signals by removing unwanted low or high-frequency content. Cubase 12 should offer these filters, allowing you to cut out rumble, background noise, or excessive sibilance from your tracks.
  8. EQ Automation: Cubase 12 allows you to automate various parameters, including EQ settings, throughout the track. This enables you to create dynamic tonal changes over time, such as making vocals brighter during the chorus or emphasizing certain instruments in specific sections.

When using EQ techniques in Cubase 12, it’s essential to use your ears and make subtle adjustments to achieve a balanced and natural sound. Avoid excessive boosting or cutting, as it can lead to an unnatural and unpleasant mix. By combining various EQ techniques thoughtfully, you can enhance the clarity, depth, and overall quality of your music productions in Cubase 12.

Stereo Imaging Techniques

Stereo imaging techniques play a crucial role in creating a sense of width, depth, and spatial balance in your music productions. In Cubase 12, you can expect a variety of tools and features to control the stereo image of your audio tracks and achieve a more immersive listening experience. Here are some stereo imaging techniques available in Cubase 12:

  1. Panning: Panning is one of the most basic and fundamental stereo imaging techniques. Cubase 12 allows you to position audio signals anywhere within the stereo field using pan controls. By adjusting the panning position of individual tracks, you can place instruments or vocals in specific locations, providing separation and clarity in the mix.
  2. Stereo Widening: Stereo wideners in Cubase 12 enable you to expand the perceived width of your audio signals beyond the traditional stereo boundaries. These tools can add a sense of spaciousness to your mix by enhancing the stereo separation of certain elements. However, use stereo wideners sparingly to avoid an unnatural or phase-related collapse when the mix is collapsed to mono.
  3. Mid-Side Processing: Mid-Side (M/S) processing in Cubase 12 allows you to manipulate the mono (mid) and stereo (side) components of a stereo signal independently. You can use this technique to control the perceived width and focus of your mix. For example, you might widen the stereo width of background elements while keeping the central lead vocal centered.
  4. Haas Effect: The Haas Effect, also known as the precedence effect, is a psychoacoustic phenomenon where our ears perceive the first arriving sound as the dominant source. In Cubase 12, you can apply the Haas Effect by slightly delaying one channel (left or right) of a stereo signal. This can create a sense of spaciousness and depth, making the sound appear wider without adding artificial reverb or delay.
  5. Microshifting: Microshifting involves applying small pitch variations to duplicate audio signals, making them sound wider while maintaining mono compatibility. Cubase 12 might offer microshifting plugins or features to achieve this effect and enhance the stereo image of your mix.
  6. Stereo Enhancers: Stereo enhancer plugins in Cubase 12 can intelligently process your audio signals to add depth and width to the mix. These plugins often utilize psychoacoustic principles to create a more immersive listening experience, making your mix sound bigger and more engaging.
  7. Mid-Side EQ: As mentioned earlier, Cubase 12 might support Mid-Side EQ, which lets you apply EQ adjustments independently to the mid (mono) and side (stereo) components of your audio tracks. Using Mid-Side EQ, you can focus the center of your mix while enhancing the stereo width of other elements.

When using stereo imaging techniques in Cubase 12, it’s crucial to monitor your mix in both stereo and mono to ensure compatibility across different playback systems. Additionally, use these techniques in a subtle and tasteful manner to avoid an unnatural or disjointed sound. Experiment with different combinations of stereo imaging tools to create a balanced and spatially appealing mix in Cubase 12.

Practical Application: Mastering a Track

Mastering a track in Cubase 12 is the final step in the music production process, where you optimize the overall sound of your mix and prepare it for distribution on various platforms. Here’s a practical step-by-step guide to mastering a track in Cubase 12:

  1. Preparation:
    • Create a new project in Cubase 12 and import the final mix of your track.
    • Make sure you are working with a high-quality, uncompressed audio file to maintain audio fidelity during the mastering process.
  2. Gain Staging:
    • Start by setting the gain levels of your mix to achieve an optimal balance between loudness and headroom. Ensure that your mix doesn’t clip, leaving enough headroom for further processing.
  3. Reference Track:
    • Import a reference track into your Cubase project. This track should be a professionally mastered song that you want your track to sonically compete with or match in terms of loudness and tonal balance.
  4. Loudness Optimization:
    • Use the loudness metering tools in Cubase 12 to analyze the loudness of your mix in LUFS (Loudness Units Full Scale).
    • Aim to match the loudness of your track to the reference track or the target loudness level appropriate for your distribution platform.
  5. Equalization (EQ):
    • Use Cubase’s EQ plugins to make tonal adjustments to your track. Address any frequency imbalances, remove unwanted frequencies, and enhance the clarity of individual elements.
    • Consider using linear phase EQ for transparent adjustments or dynamic EQ to tackle specific frequency issues.
  6. Stereo Imaging:
    • Utilize stereo imaging tools to control the width and placement of your mix elements within the stereo field.
    • Be subtle with stereo widening to avoid phase issues and maintain mono compatibility.
  7. Dynamic Processing:
    • Apply dynamic processing to your mix to control the dynamics and ensure a consistent loudness level.
    • Use multi-band compression, limiting, and other dynamic processors to enhance the punch and control of your mix.
  8. Harmonic Enhancement:
    • Consider adding harmonic excitement or saturation to individual tracks or the master bus to add warmth and character to your mix.
  9. Final Checks:
    • Switch between your mix and the reference track for A/B comparison to ensure you’re heading in the right direction.
    • Listen to your master on different playback systems to verify its quality and make any necessary adjustments.
  10. Exporting:
    • Once you’re satisfied with the master, export it as a high-quality audio file, adhering to the necessary file format and bit depth requirements for your chosen distribution platform.

Remember that mastering is both an art and a technical process, and it takes time and practice to develop the skills to achieve the desired results. Be patient, trust your ears, and use Cubase 12’s powerful mastering tools to bring out the best in your music and create a polished, professional-sounding track ready for the world to hear.


Mastering is a crucial stage in the music production process, and Cubase 12 provides a comprehensive set of tools and features to help users achieve professional results. Throughout this overview, we have explored the fundamental aspects of mastering, focusing on loudness, EQ, and stereo imaging techniques available in Cubase 12.

Loudness optimization is essential for ensuring a balanced and consistent volume level across different playback systems. Cubase 12’s loudness metering tools, compliant with LUFS standards, enable users to gauge and control the perceived loudness of their tracks, meeting the requirements of various distribution platforms.

EQ techniques in Cubase 12 empower users to sculpt the tonal characteristics of their audio, addressing frequency imbalances and enhancing clarity. With various EQ options, including parametric, graphic, and dynamic EQs, users can refine the frequency balance and create a polished mix.

Stereo imaging is a key component in creating a sense of space and immersion in the music. Cubase 12 offers an array of tools to manipulate the stereo field, from traditional panning to advanced M/S processing and stereo wideners. These features allow users to shape the spatial placement of elements and achieve a wide and captivating soundscape.

Mastering basics—loudness, EQ, and stereo imaging—in Cubase 12 provide users with a powerful toolkit to refine and elevate their music productions. By skillfully leveraging these tools, musicians, producers, and engineers can achieve professional-grade results, preparing their tracks for distribution and delivering an engaging and captivating listening experience to their audience. Whether it’s balancing loudness, shaping tonal qualities, or creating an immersive soundstage, Cubase 12’s mastering features offer a wealth of creative possibilities for artists to realize their artistic vision. As technology continues to advance, Cubase 12 is likely to continue evolving, further refining its mastering capabilities and empowering users to achieve even more impressive and polished musical creations.